The Modern Gaulish Language
The revival of the Gaulish language: Galáthach hAthevíu








Links:

1. A discussion group on, for and in the modern Gaulish language:

www.facebook.com/groups/moderngaulishlanguage/

2. A comprehensive English-Modern Gaulish-English dictionary:

www.glosbe.com/mis_gal/en/

3. A series of step-by-step lessons in several languages, including English, Portuguese, French, German and Italian:

https://moderngaulishlessons.wordpress.com

4. A memrise course:

http://www.memrise.com/course/802166/modern-gaulish-1/

5. a) A collection of translations of poetry and prose in modern and in old Gaulish:

https://www.amazon.com/Anthologia-Gallica-Senobrixta-Galáthach-hAthevíu-Poetry/dp/1511644265

b) a collection of original poetry, songs and stories in the modern Gaulish language:

https://www.amazon.com/CnusVl%C3%A1thu-Gal%C3%A1thach-Modern-Gaulish-Anthology/dp/1546815945

6. A collection of soundfiles, including songs, in  modern Gaulish:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQZGNIA8g2o&list=PLhTUHvgCLoUAEmRsQ9imUkR0JdoxWkq6K&index=1

7. A collection of essays on aspects of Gaulish language and culture:

https://independent.academia.edu/ModernGaulish


8. A translation of Asterix The Gaul in modern Gaulish:

http://asterixinmoderngaulish.myfreesites.com

9. A translation of Agrippa, a manga about Vercingetorix:

http://mangainmoderngaulish.myfreesites.com


25. Numerals
 
Numerals are reasonably well attested in the ancient Gaulish material. A complete set of ordinals is attested at La Graufesenque (see Delamarre 2003; Lambert 2003), and cardinals can be deduced from indirect attestations (glosses, personal onomastic material, toponomy). While the attestation is imperfect, enough is known to be able to reconstruct a full set of practically useable cardinals and ordinals. The following are attested:

(in Delamarre 2003).
 
From the above attested forms it is possible to reconstruct the ordinal number nine:
 
        nametos = ninth
        na + met + os > nine + ordinal marker + ending
        > na = nine
 
The ordinal number two can not be reconstructed from the above data. It can however be deduced by comparison with the surviving historical Celtic languages. As such, it is posited here that:
 
        two: dá
 
Furthermore, the number fourteen is attested:
 
        petrudecametos = fourteenth
        > petrudecan = fourteen
 
This permits the conclusion that the numbers from 11 to 19 were formed as follows:
 
        petru-decan = four-teen
        > number+ten
 
It is therefore possible to deduce the formation of all the missing numbers from 11 to 19:
 
        oinodecan
        dadecan
        tridecan
        petrudecan
        pimpdecan
        suexdecan
        sextandecan
        oxtudecan
        nadecan
        uoconti
 
It is also possible to observe that starting from the number “seventh” all ordinals are formed with the suffix –metos. Therefore, the ordinal marker for numbers upwards of seven for the modern Gaulish language will be:
 
        -metos > -met > -weth after consonants
                                   -meth after vowels
 
e.g.: óith: eight > óithweth: eighth
        ná: nine > námeth: nineth
 
Applying the regular modern Gaulish sound changes to the above data gives the following:

To construct numbers above twenty, it is proposed here that the modern Gaulish language employ the vigesimal way of counting. This is based on the fact that such a method of counting is widespread among and apparently indigenous to the modern Celtic languages, and that is is also found in the French language, heir to the Gaulish substrate. As such, multiples of twenty are constructed.
 
The numbers dá, tri and pethr fuse onto the following word, undergoing word internal spirantisation following the regular rules of compound word formation:
 
        gwochon: twenty
        dachwochon: forty (“two-twenty”)
        trichwochon: sixty (“three-twenty”)
        petherchwochon: eighty (“four-twenty”)
 
After twenty or a multiple thereof the numbers 1 through till 19 are added onto the multiple of twenty, until the next multiple is reached, after which it starts again from the start:
To construct the ordinals of numbers, the suffix –weth/-meth is added to the last number of the series:
 
        79: trichwochon nádhech
        79th: trichwochon nádhechweth
        100th: canweth
        2000th: dá milweth
 
Cardinal numbers precede the noun, as is attested in the Gaulish corpus:
 
        trimarcisia = three horseriders (Delamarre 2003, p. 302)
        decamnoctiaca = three night feats (Delamarre 2003, p. 137)
 
        > tri march: three horses
        > dech nóith: ten nights
 
It is also attested that ordinal numbers follow the noun the refer to:
 
        tuđđos nametos = ninth batch
        > tus námeth
 
(Lambert 2003, p. 132)