The Modern Gaulish Language
The revival of the Gaulish language: Galáthach hAthevíu








Links:

1. A discussion group on, for and in the modern Gaulish language:

www.facebook.com/groups/moderngaulishlanguage/

2. A comprehensive English-Modern Gaulish-English dictionary:

www.glosbe.com/mis_gal/en/

3. A series of step-by-step lessons in several languages, including English, Portuguese, French, German and Italian:

https://moderngaulishlessons.wordpress.com

4. A memrise course:

http://www.memrise.com/course/802166/modern-gaulish-1/

5. a) A collection of translations of poetry and prose in modern and in old Gaulish:

https://www.amazon.com/Anthologia-Gallica-Senobrixta-Galáthach-hAthevíu-Poetry/dp/1511644265

b) a collection of original poetry, songs and stories in the modern Gaulish language:

https://www.amazon.com/CnusVl%C3%A1thu-Gal%C3%A1thach-Modern-Gaulish-Anthology/dp/1546815945

6. A collection of soundfiles, including songs, in  modern Gaulish:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQZGNIA8g2o&list=PLhTUHvgCLoUAEmRsQ9imUkR0JdoxWkq6K&index=1

7. A collection of essays on aspects of Gaulish language and culture:

https://independent.academia.edu/ModernGaulish


8. A translation of Asterix The Gaul in modern Gaulish:

http://asterixinmoderngaulish.myfreesites.com

9. A translation of Agrippa, a manga about Vercingetorix:

http://mangainmoderngaulish.myfreesites.com


III. References/ Bibliography
 
 
Gaulish
 
Albin, Jacques (2011) “La langue Gauloise – la tuile de Châteaubleau” – Academia.edu
     http://www.academia.edu/1747376/La_langue_gauloise_-_la_tuile_de_Chateaubleau
 
Anderson, Carl (2006-2013), personal communications.
 
Arbre Celtique, http://www.arbre-celtique.com/encyclopedie/langue-gauloise-2.htm
 
AtedugyonYektisKeltika Yahoo Group online (2011-2013), discussion forum.
 
Ball, Martin J. & Fife, James (1993) The Celtic Languages.
     http://books.google.com/book?Ball+Fife+Celtic+Language
 
Bauer, Brigitte L. M. (1996) ‘Language loss in Gaul: socio-historical and linguistic  
     factors in language conflict’, Southwest Journal of Linguistics, v. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 23-
     44.
 
Bellouesus Isarnos (2006-2013), personal communications,
     http://bellovesos.multiply.com/
 
Bhrghros (2006-2013), personal communications.
 
Cassell, Michael (2006-2013), personal communications
 
Celticaconlang Yahoo Group online (2006-2011), discussion forum
 
Continentalceltic Yahoo Group Online: Bernard Mees, David Stifter, Chris Gwinn, and
     many others (2006-2013)
 
Coskun, Altay & Zeidler, Jurgen (2003) “Covernames and Nomenclature in Late Roman
     Gaul: The Evidence of the Bordelaise Poet Ausonius”,
     http://www.books.google.com.au
 
Delamarre, Xavier (2003) Dictionnaire de la Langue Gauloise, Editions Errance, Paris.
 
Eska, Joseph (2008) “Continental Celtic”, in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s
     Ancient Languages, pp. 857-78.
 
Finsen, Lars (2006-2013), personal communications.
 
French-English Dictionnary Online, http://www.french-linguistics.co.uk/dictionary/
 
French-English Dictionnary Online, http://www.wordreference.com/fren/
 
Fournet, Arnaud (2011) “About the ethnolinguistics of Gaulish people: the case for a
     Kartic substrate”, The Macro-Comparative Journal, vol. 2, No. 1.
 
“Glozelic”, http://www.glozel.net/shortHistory.html
 
Gray, Louis H. (1944) ‘Mutation in Gaulish’, Language, v. 20, no. 4, pp. 223-30.
 
Hubert, Henry; Dobie, Maryat R.; Mauss, Marcel; Lantier, Raymond & Marx, Jean 
     (1934-2002) The Rise of the Celts.
http://www.books.google.com/books?id=henry+hubert+the+rise+of+the+celts&source=web-etc.
 
Hubschmied, J. H. (1938) ‘Sprachliche Zeugen fur das Spate Aussterben des Gallischen’,
     Vox Romanica, III, pp. 48-155.
 
Isaac, Graham R. (2007) “Celtic and Afro-Asiatic”, in The Celtic Languages in Contact,
     http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2007/1568/
 
Koch, John (2006) “Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia”,
     http://www.books.google.com.au
 
Lambert, Pierre-Yves (2003) La Langue Gauloise, Editions Errance, Paris.
 
McKay, Helen (2006-2013), personal communications.
 
Mees, Bernard (2008) “The women of Larzac”, KF 3, pp. 169-88.
 
Mees, Bernard (2010) “Words from the well at Gallo-Roman Châteaubleau”, pp. 89-106.
 
Mees, Bernard (2011) “Wackernagel’s, pro-drop and verb-second in syntax in
     Continental Celtic”, Academia.edu. http://www.academia.edu/1701275/Wackernagels_law_pro-drop_and_verb-second_syntax_in_Continental_Celtic
 
Mullen, Alex (2007) “Evidence for written Celtic from Roman Britain: a linguistic
     analysis of Tabellae Sulis 14 and 18”, Studia Celtica, XLI, pp. 31-45.
 
Piqueron, Olivier (2006) Yextis Keltika, Yahoo Celtica Conlang Files,
     http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/celticaconlang/
     (note: file access for members only)
 
Stifter, David (2000) “The Chateaubleau Tiles”, https://listserv.heanet.ie/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0006&L=oldirish-I&O=D&P=12796
 
Stifter, David (2008) “Old Celtic languages”, http://www.univie.ac/at/indogermanistik/
 
Stifter, David (2009) “Notes on Châteaubleau (L-93)”, KF, pp. 229-244.
 
Stifter, David (2012) “New Gaulish inscriptions”,
     http://www.rootsofeurope.ku.dk/.../New_Gaulish_Inscriptions_Copenhagen_p...
 
Stifter, David (2012) “Gallo-Latin inscriptions”, Old Celtic Languages, Spring 2012.
     http://www.rootsofeurope.ku.dk/kalender/arkiv.../Gallish_2_WS_2010.pdf/
 
“The Gaulish Language” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaulish_language
 
“The Gaulish verb ‘to be’”, http://www.angelfire.com/me/ik/tobes.html
 
Watkins, Calvert (1955) ‘The phonemics of Gaulish – The Dialect of Narbonensis’,
     Language, v.31, no. 1, pp. 9-19.
 
Woodard, Roger (2008) The ancient languages of Europe. http://books.google.com.au
 
 
Welsh
 
“A Welsh Course”, http://www.cs.cf.ac.uk/fun/welsh/
 
Borsley, R. D., Tallermn, M. O. & Wills, D. W. E. (n.d.) “Historical syntax”, in The
     Syntax of Welsh, http://people.ds.cam.ac.uk/dwew2/diachrony.pdf
 
Borsley, R. D., Tallermn, M. O. & Wills, D. W. E. (2007) The Syntax of Welsh,  
     http://books.google.com.au/books
 
Celtic Literature Collective (n.d.) “Welsh texts (Old and Middle QWelsh)”,
     http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/index_welsh.html
 
Falileyev, Alexander (2000) “Etymological glossary of Old Welsh, http://npu.edu.ua/!e-book/book/djvu/A/iif_kgpm_Etymological_Glossary_of_Old_Welsh.pdf
 
Gareth King (2003) “A Comprehensive Grammar of Modern Welsh”,
     http://books.google.com.au
 
Glosbe English-Welsh dictionary, http://glosbe.com/en/cy/
 
Middle Welsh Grammar, http://www.mit.edu/~dfm/canol/contents.html
 
Schafer, Roland (2012) “A grammatical sketch of Middle Welsh”, http://hpsg.fu-berlin.de/~rsling/downloads/pubs/Schaefer_AGrammaticalSketchOfMiddleWelsh.pdf
 
SiaradCymraeg.com, http://www.siaradcymraeg.com/intro.html
 
“Some Basic Rules of Welsh Grammar”,
     http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/learnwelsh/pdf/welshgrammar_allrules.pdf
 
Welsh/English/Welsh dictionnary, http://www.geiriadur.net/
 
Welsh grammar, http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/learnwelsh/pdfwelshgrammar_all_rules.pdf
 
Wikipedia for Welsh, Breton, Irish and Cornish grammar,
http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language/&/Breton_language/&/Irish_language/&/Cornish_language 
 
Willis, David (n.d.) “Old and Middle Welsh”,
     http://people.ds.cam.ac.uk/dwew2/diachrony.pdf
 
Kevin J. Rottet and Rex A. Sprouse; Tag Questions in Welsh, 2008; John Benjamins Publishing Company; http://benjamins.com/series/dia/25-1/art/03rot.pdf
 
 
Breton
 
“Breton” http://www.agencebretagnepresse.com/dico/dico.cgi/
 
“Breton Language”, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Projet:Langues/Breton
 
Breton Verbal Inflection, http://johannes.heinecke.free.fr/dict/brezhoneg/verbs.html
 
Brezhoneg Daou, http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Brezhoneg_Dao%C3%B9/Lesson_3
 
Dico Geriadur: Breton Dictionary,
     http://www.agencebretagnepresse.com/cgi-bin/dico.cgi
 
Freelang Breton-English dictionary, http://www.freelang.net/online/breton.php?lg=gb
 
Geriadur.com: Dictionnaire Evolué Francais-Breton, http://www.geriadur.com/
 
Glosbe English-Breton dictionary, http://glosbe.com/en/br/if
 
Hewitt, Steve (n.d.) “Breton, a tale of two conditionals”, http://www.academia.edu/785418/Breton_A_tale_of_two_conditionals
 
Kervaker Breton Lessons Online, http://www.kervaker.org/en/lessons_01_toc.html
 
Laurent, Loeic [n.d.] ‘De l’apparition du language au Breton, forme moderne du
     Gaulois’, http://www.agencebretagnepresse.com/fetch.php?id=8079
 
Preder Embannaduriou: Geriadur ar Brezhoneg, http://www.preder.net/klask.php 
     (Breton Dictionnary)
 
Press, Ian (1985) “A Grammar of Modern Breton”, http://books.google.com.au/
 
“The Breton verb ‘besan’, ‘to be’”, http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/saoghal/miou-chanain/brezhoneg/
 
“The direct object personal pronouns in Lorient area Breton”, http://www.academia.edu/964814/The_Direct_Object_Personal_Pronouns_in_Lorient_Area_Breton
 
Timm, Lenora A (1990) “Some observations on the syntax of the Breton verbal noun”, in
     Celtic Linguistics / Ieithyddiaeth Geltaidd: Readings in the Brythonic Languages, eds.
     Ball, Fife, Poppe and Rowland. http://books.google.com.au/books
 
University of Toronto, “History of the Breton Language”. 
     http://www.utm.utoronto.ca/~w3cevans/mst2039/HistoryofBretonlge.pdf
 
 
Cornish
 
“Agan Tavas, Our Language”, http://www.agantavas.org.uk/
 
Cornish Grammar, http://www.cornishgrammar.com/?n=Verbs.Home
 
“Cornish Lessons”,
     http://www.bbc.co.uk/cornwall/connected/stories/new_cornwall_language.html
 
Cussel an Tavas Kernuak, http://home.btconnect.com/htm_cornwall/
 
Cussel an Tavas Kernuak, “Cornish grammar”, http://www.moderncornish.net/beginners-notes/section-3.html
 
English-Cornish dictionary,
     http://home.btconnect.com/htm_cornwall/articles%20translations/mamgerlever.pdf
 
Jenner, Henry (1904) A Handbook of the Cornish Language,
     http://www.aolib.com/reader_26192_78.htm
 
“Kernewek Dre Lyther”,
     http://www.kd/cornish.freeserve.co.uk/firstgradecourse/kdl16.pdf
 
Norris, Edwin (1859) A Scetch of Cornish Grammar, http://books.google.com.au
 
“Omniglot”, http://www.omniglot/writing/cornish.htm
 
“Warlinnen, the Cornish Language Fellowship Online”, http://www.cornish-language.org/English/Dictionnary.asp
 
Williams, G. P. (1908) ‘The pre-verbal particle re in Cornish’, PhD thesis, http://www.archive.org/stream/preverbalparticl100willrich/preverbalparticl100willrich_djvu.txt
 
 
Irish
 
“An Chrannog: Focloir Bearla-Gaeilge”, http://www.crannog.ie/ttt.htm (Irish dictionnary)
 
“Basic Outline of the Grammar of Irish for Unreconstructed Linguists” http://fiosfeasa.com/bearla/language/grammar1.htm
 
Comparison Irish - Scottish Grammar, http://www.geocities.com/ecosse_mon_coeur
 
De Bernardo-Stempel, Patricia [n.d.] ‘Old Irish’,
     http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/Irc/eieol/iriol=TC-X.html
 
eDIL, electronic dictionary of the Irish language, http://www.dil.ie/  
 
Gaelic Dictionnaries, http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/search.html (Irish, Scottish & Manx)
 
“Gaelic Lessons”, http://www.maths.tcd.ie/gaeilge/lessons.html
 
Gordon, Randall Clark (2012) “Derivational morphology of the early Irish verbal noun”,
     Proquest, http://gradworks.umi.com/34/97/3497395.html
 
Gramadach na Gaeilge – Irish Grammar, http://nualeargais.ie/gnag/gram.htm
 
Irish Dictionnary, http://www.englishirishdictionnary.com/dictionnary
 
Irish Dictionary Online: http://www.irishdictionary.ie/home
 
Irish Grammar www.daltai.com/grammar
 
Irish Initial Consonant Mutations, http://www.answers.com/topic/irish-initial-mutations
 
Irish, www.smo.uni.ai.uk/gaidhlig/faclair/sbg/lorg.php
 
Learn Irish, Eurotalk Interactive, CD-ROM
 
“Learn Irish Gaelic”, http://www.erinsweb.com/gaelic19.html
 
“Word Initial Mutations in Celtic Languages”, http://everything2.com/index
 
 
Scottish Gaelic
 
Robertson, Boyd & Taylor, Iain (1993) Teach Yourself Gaelic, A Complete Course for
     Beginners, Hoddor, London (book & cassette)
 
Stewart, Thomas (2004) Mutation as morphology: bases, stems and shapes in Scottish
     Gaelic (PhD thesis), www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi?osu1086046888
 
 
General
 
Alphabetizer, http://alphabetizer.flap.tv/index.php
 
Ball, James & King, Gareth (1993) ‘The Celtic Languages’, in The Handbook of
     Morphology, eds Andrew Spencer and Arnold M. Zwicky, http://books.google.com.au
 
Chao Li (2004) “On verbal nouns in Celtic languages”, Proceeding of the Harvard Celtic
     Colloquium, eds. Jones, Alberro, Bempechat. http://books.google.com.au/books
 
“Cimbri” http://www.davidkfaux.org/Cimbri-Chronology.pdf
 
“Clitics”, www.wordforms.net/Clitic/encyclopedia.htm
 
“Conjugation of verbs”, http://www.allverbs.com/verbtable.php?langid=1949&verb=lenn  
     (Breton/Welsh/Cornish/Irish/General)
 
“Continuous and progressive aspects” - Wikipedia
 
English-Proto Celtic Word List, University of Wales, http://www.wales.ac.uk/Resources/Documents/Research/CelticLanguages/EnglishProtoCelticWordList.pdf
 
Formation of Future Tenses, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future_tense
 
Green, Anthony Djubach (n.d.)  ‘The Independence of Phonology and Morphology: the
     Celtic Mutations’, http://roa.rutgers.edu/files/652-0404/652-GREEN-O-O.PDF
 
Hewitt, Steve (2007) “Remarks on the Insular Celtic Hamito-Semitic question”,
     Academia.edu,
     http://www.academia.edu/283231/Remarks_on_the_Insular_Celtic_Hamito-  Semitic_question
 
Hopper, P. J. & Closi-Traugett, E. (1993) ‘Grammaticalisation’, Textbook on Linguistics,
     Cambridge University Press,
     http://www.21stcenturyfogey.com/language/linguisticcomplexity.htm
 
Indo-European Copula, Wikipedia (2007), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_copula
 
Indo-European s-mobile, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_s-mobile
 
Macauley, Donald (1992) The Celtic Languages. http://books.google.com.au
 
Matasovic, Ranko, “Etymological Lexicon of Proto Celtic”,
     http://www.scribd.com/doc/61167870/An-Etymological-Lexicon-of-Proto-Celtic
 
Matasovic, Ranko (2011) “Problems in the reconstruction of Proto Celtic”,
     http://exadmin.matita.net/uploads/pagine/644703631_handouts_pavia_matasovic.pdf
 
“Pokorny Root Index”,
     http://homepage.ntlworld.com/richard.wordingham/pok/pok_index.htm
 
“ProtoIndoeuropean Pronouns and Particles”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-European_pronouns_and_particles
 
“Proto Indo European Verbs” – Wikipedia.
 
Pyatt, Elisabeth J. (n.d.) “Relativised Domains in the Celtic Languages’,
     http://www.personal.psu.edu/ejpb/Pyattpll26.pdf
 
Ronan, Patricia (2006) “Aspects of verbal noun constructions in medieval Irish and Welsh, with reference to similar constructions in Basque”, NUI Maynooth,
     http://eprints.nuim.ie/3519/1/VNThesis.pdf
 
Russell, Paul (1990) Celtic wordformation: the velar suffixes. http://books.google.com.au
 
Sala, M. & Vintila-Radulescu, L. (1984) Les Langues Du Monde, Petit Encyclopédie, in
     Dark Ages Observations.
     http://www.darkages.espadana-walker.com/spip.php?article7
 
University of Wales, http://www.wales.ac.uk/resources/documents/moe-pcl.pdf (Proto-
     Celtic Database)
 
Venneman, Theo (2003) ‘Languages in Prehistoric Europe North of the Alps’,
     http://www.scribd.com/doc/8670/Languages-in-prehistoric-Europe-north-of-the-Alps
 
Watkins, Calvert (1962) Indo-European origins of the Celtic verb: the sigmatic aorist.
     http://books.google.com.au
 
Willem De Reuse (2009), research fellow in linguistics, University of Texas, personal
     communications.